By the richness and quality of water Montenegro is in the world’s top. That greatest state resource, however, is not used, and the so far taking care and researches have been done mostly randomly and without any plan, so nature for the most part has been taking care about Montenegrin waters.
– By the richness of water Montenegro is listed in the 4% of the states in the world. With that we also have to have in mind the fact that 95% of the water flows with the mouths and the basin areas is in our territory, with every right it can be said that the water is our greatest natural resource. We, however, still most often use the approximate method: someone goes through an area, sees it and says “it is great”, “it is rich”, “it has a lot of water”. Basically, we still don’t have good records, and the records that we do have institutions and enterprises are not using in the adequate way. Simply, we are still in the domain of pure nature and we haven’t used that most significant resource – said for “Vijesti” director of the Hydrometeor bureau Luka Mitrovic.
He pointed out that in Montenegro 1.800 mm of rain falls averagely per year, but it should be pointed out that the greatest amount of rainfalls falls in the area where there are sedimentary rocks and that water in fact is not appearing on the surface.
– The greatest richness of waters is exactly in the place where it is falling the least, in the northeast and east part, in the basins of Lim, Tara, Piva, Cehotina, and Ibar. On the other hand, there are dry periods, which last long and then we have a great lack of water. That climate specifics of Montenegro have conditioned that water is lacking when it is needed the most. The grounds, the amount and the schedule of rainfalls are three elements which determine the richness of waters. We can say that we are rich with water, but only in the months when we have rainfalls, we, lets say are in the range of Amazon or Congo where 2.000 mm of rain falls, but there rains are falling every day, and here the rain is falling in seasons. In order for preserve that water it is necessary to build water systems and accumulation systems that are extremely expensive – said Mitrovic.
The quality of waters in Montenegro is exquisite, and the most polluted rivers, according to the data of the Hydrometeor system are Vezisnica and Cehotina in Pljevlja valley, because of the mine and Thermo electric power station, and Morac in the lower part where the sewerage systems comes in it, and then Ibar and Lim.
– In the majority of cases the polluter is the town sewerage system. The water of Moraca, for example, is the most pollutes in the locality bellow the town’s collector, but in the lower flow of the river the quality of the water gets significantly improved. Zeta, Piva, River of Crnojevic, and Bojana are counted in the medium polluted water flows. Zeta is not that much polluted, as it is presented in the public, because in the summer months it is used for swimming and irrigation. Tara, Grncar, Cijevna, and Kutksa River are a group of cleanest water flows. Except Cehotina and Vezisnica we can say that all rivers have a dense living world – said Mitrovic. Commenting the numerous objections about the solution of usage of water in the draft of the Spacious plan, Mitrovic pointed out that a mistake was made in the very beginning, because, along with the constitution, the most important document was not supposed to be made by the foreign, but by the domestic experts.
– That document has taken out a bit from every study and that is why it happened that one water facility in the Spacious plan has even up to five, among themselves very opposite usages. Spacious plan was not supposed to be put on a public open competition, it was supposed to be made by the University or some other institution, with the engaging of foreign experts. Our experts surely know better the problems than various experts from any part of the world. I think that our experts are even more objective, because they live here and they want what’s best for their country. We give jobs to foreigners quite easy. Foreigners first have to come here to learn something about Montenegro. That is why we have so many failures, as it was the case in 1950’s with the failure of the project of electrical power station with no water in Ozrinici, which was made by foreigners who do not know the area of Montenegro – said Mitorvic.
He stressed that the needs for the usage of waters are great and that:
– Water, which is needed for energetic, should be used in the sense of regenerated sources. The biggest problem are accumulations and there has to be found a compromise between ecology and energetic, and in order for it to be achieved as many experts and institutions have to be included in that. Besides, alternative sources of energy in the Spacious plan are mentioned just as a possibility without any further elaboration. We don’t have sufficient data, but even if we did in that sphere maximum that we can, we cannot get more than several percents of improvement. I am not a supporter of the construction of big dams, but Montenegro has to look for a solution for receiving of the amount of electricity that it lacks. I am an ecologist too, but not at any cost and not in extreme ways. Unarguably, anywhere where we have constructions there has to be some damage made. So it should not be looked where the interest is bigger, but where the damage is lesser, with the fact that, in the end, the state, and not NGO sector, leads the ecological policy – said he.
Mitrovic pointed out that big projects about putting in order the happenings in the hydrology in Montenegro are in progress.
– From the concrete projects, which are led by the Bureau, I would point out those, which we are conducting with the support of the Norwegian direction for water resources and energy (NVE). We have terminated the project “Hydrology in Montenegro” during which we have got a first automatic hydrological station on Moraca. For the first time we have placed on Zabljak a gadget which measures the amount and the potential of snow. Considering that the state of measuring stations is very bad, we have started to make a Master plan of construction of hydrometeor stations, which predicts the construction of 50 new stations, with the newest equipment and software for processing of data. One of the most significant projects which is done my Hydrometeor Bureau is “Hydrological researches for the needs of construction of small hydro electrical power stations”, which is being carried out for the needs of Electrical company, during which we will examine 30 locations, even though the studies of the Electrical company of Montenegro say that there are about 70 potential locations. The problem lies in the fact that one part of those planned electrical power stations will have to have dams, that is, mini accumulations and it is hardly that any investor will be interested to open an electrical power station where there is no sufficient water over the entire year – said Mitrovic.
THA FAITH OF THE LAKES ON THE NORTH IS TO DISAPPEAR
Mitrovic pointed out that the lakes on the north have appeared thanks to the natural circumstances, by melting of the snow and that their destiny is to, as everywhere in the world, disappear one day.
– The dams, which were formed, are natural and when that iceberg ceases to be powerful they become trenchant. That process on Biogradsko Lake is slugged by the natural development of vegetation. Because of the steepness of the terrain it is not possible to plant vegetation which would hold the dam. On Durmitor, for example, it is said that there are 20 lakes, and you can’t find more than 12. That doesn’t mean that we shouldn’t do everything that is necessary to, if not prevent, then at least to slow down that process for the longest possible period. As much non-ecological as it may sound, it is necessary to make walls and to thoroughly clean the riverbed, because the trunks and other vegetation fall into it and the river takes it all into the lake – said Mitrovic.
RENOUNCED THE WEALTH
Mitrovic pointed out that the non-usage of waters from Bileca Lake is the best example of how Montenegro is giving away their resources to others.
– Almost no one mentioned that Montenegro has a share in Bileca Lake. We have calculated that we have more than 30% of the capacities of the lake. I think that we were politically naïve and that instead of asking for the tunnel to go on Plate we should have asked that it goes to Risan, now we are in fact paying our water which is going from Bileca lake for Dubrovnik on Plat to Herceg Novi. We should make a good plan how to make agreements with the neighbors about the usage of water. For example the story about the compiling of waters of Tara into Moraca would be a complex issue, because you have to ask for authorization from the several states down the flow of the river, which belong to the basin of Drina and Danube, and even Sava – said Mitrovic.