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Learn Montenegrin Language – Grammar


Part 1: Imenice – Nouns

Nouns are words which have changing endings and they are used to name people, places, things and phenomena. In Serbian language all nouns have a gender: masculine, feminine and neutral. The great majority of masculine nouns ends with a consonant, while the majority of feminine nouns ends with the letter “a” (tetka – aunt, olovka – pencil etc), but there are feminine nouns that end with a consonant such as peć – stove. Neutral nouns end with letters “o” or “e” like in words dijete – a child or in vino – wine.

The nouns in Serbian language have the number (singular and plural) and declensions (they have 7 cases). Except nouns, adjectives, numbers, ordinal numbers and pronouns also can be declined.

Part 2: Padeži – Cases

The cases are:

1.Nominative (usually it is a subject and you can get the nominative by answering the questions who? and what?
2. Genitive (it is a possessive and the questions to get a genitive are of whom?, And of what?)
3. Dative (it is the indirect object and the questions for dative are to whom? And to what?)
4. Accusative (is the direct object, and the questions are whom? and what?)
5. Vocative (calling someone e.g. Petre – the nominative is Petar)
6. Instrumental (the questions are with whom? and with what?)
7. Locative (the questions are about whom? and about what?)

Part 3: Zamjenice – Pronouns

  • Ja- I
  • Ti – You
  • On/Ona/Ono – He/She/It
  • Mi – We
  • Vi – You
  • Oni – They
N ja ti on/ona/ono
G mene/me tebe/te njega/ga, nje/je, njega/ ga
D meni/mi tebi/ti njemu/mu,njoj/joj,njemu/mu
A mene/me tebe/te njega/ga, nju/ju/je, njega/ga
V ti
I sa mnom tobom njim, njom, njim
L meni tebi njemu, njoj, njemu
N mi vi oni/one/ona
G nas vas njih/ih
D nama/nam vama/vam njima/im
A nas vas njih/ih
V vi
I nama vama njima
L nama vama njima

Part 3.1: Prisvojne zemjenice – Possesive pronouns

Posessive pronouns are; moj – mine, tvoj – yours, njegov – his / njen- hers, naš – ours, vaš – yours, njihov –theirs

N moj tvoj njegov/njen
G moga tvoga njegovog/njenog
D mome tvome njegovom/njenom
A mog/moj tvog/tvoj njegovog/njenog, njegov/njen
I mojim tvojim njegovim/njenim
L mom tvom njegoovom/njenom
N naš vaš njigov
G našeh vašeg njihovog
D našem vašem njihovom
A našeg-naš vašeg-vaš njihovog-njihov
I našim vašim njihovim
L našem vašem njihovom

Part 3.2: Pokazne zamjenice – Demonstrative pronouns

Pronouns are used as demonstratives:

  • ovaj (m.), ova (f.), ovo (n.) – This;
  • ovi (m.), ove (f.), ova (n.) – These;
  • onaj (m.), ona (f.), ono (n.) – That;
  • oni (m.), one (f.), ona (n.) – Those.

Part 4: Glagoli – Verbs

We also have verbs and they are conjugated in three persons both singular and plural.

Serbian language has two auxiliary verbs and they are: Biti (to Be) and Htjeti (Will). These auxiliary verb forms are forming tenses such as perfect tenses and future tenses.

Sadašnje vrijeme – Present tense

Stressed form Unstressed form
1. jesam (I am) sam (I’m)
2. jesi (are) si (You’re)
3. jeste (is) je(He/she/it’s)
1. jesmo (We are) smo (We’re)
2. jeste (are) ste (You’re)
3. jesu (are) su (They’re)

Stressed form Unstressed form
1. hoću (I will) ću (I’ll)
2. hoćeš (You will) ćeš(You’ll)
3. hoće (He/she it will) će (He/she/it’ll)
1. hoćemo(We will) ćemo(We’ll)
2. hoćete (You will) ćete (You’ll)
3. hoće (They will) će (They’ll)

The infinitive form of all the verbs in Serbian language end either in – ti (as in the verb učiti – learn) or in – ći (as in the verb teći – flow)

Učiti – to learn Misliti – to think Jesti – to eat
1. Ja učim – I am studing Ja mislim – I think (or I am thinking – depending on the continuation of the sentence) Ja jedem – I am eating
2. Ti učiš – You are studing Ti misliš – You think Ti jedeš – You are eating
3. On/ona/ono uči He/she/it is studing On/ona/ono misli – He/she/it thinks On/ona/ono jede – He/she/it is eating
1. Mi učimo – We are studing Mi mislimo – We think Mi jedemo – We are eating
2. Vi učite – You are studing Vi mislite – You think Vi jedete – You are eating
3. Oni uče – They are studing Oni misle – They think Oni jedu – They are eating

Prošlo vrijeme – Past tense

Past tense – All past action in Serbian laguage continuous and sipmle can be uttered in the past tense. The past tense is formed from the present tense of the auxiliary verb BITI „to BE“ (sam, si, je, smo, ste, su) and the avtive past participle of the main (changing) verb. This participle is formed by cutting of the infinitive ending –ti or –ći and adding the appropriate gender ending which are:

  • Masculine – o
  • Feminine – la
  • Neutral – lo

So for e..g. the participle of the verb misliti would be: Mislio (m.), mislila (f.), and mislilo (n.)

Učiti – to learn
1. ja sam radio(m.)/radila(f.) I work or I was working radio/radila sam
2. ti si radio(m.)/radila(f.)/radilo(n.) you were working radio si/ radila je/ radilo je
3. on je radio(m.)/ona je radila(f.)/ono je radilo(n.) he was workin/she was working/it was working radio/radila/radilo je
1. mi smo radili(m.)/radile(f.) We worked or We were working radili/radile smo
2. Vi ste radili (m.)/radile (f.) You worked or You were working radili/radile ste
3. oni su radili(m.)/one su radile(f.)/ona su radila(n.) Radili/radile/radila su

Buduće vrijeme – Future tense

Future tense – is used to indicate the actions that are about to happen or which will happen at some point in the future. In Serbian laguage this tense is formed from the present tense of the auxilary verb HTJETI “to have“ (ću,ćeš,će,ćemo,ćete,će) and the infinitive form of the main verb.

1. ja ću pisati (I will write) pisaću
2. ti ćeš pisati (you will write) pisaćeš
3. on/ona/ono će pisati (he/she/it will write) pisaće
1. mi ćemo pisati (we will write) pisaćemo
2. vi ćete pisati (you will write) pisaćete
3. oni/one/ona će pisati (they will write) pisaćemo

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