Ivan Crnojevic is considered to be a founder of Cetinje. He built a castle and a monastery in the plane below the famous Montenegrin Mountain Lovcen. According to the written data, by the end of the XVII century, down the plane flew River Cetina, so that part of the town was called by that river Cetinjsko polje (The field of Cetinje) . In Cetinjsko polje, at that time there used to be a small inhabited village, by which the later newly created town got name Cetinje. In the historical documents Cetinje is mentioned for the first time in 1440 year. In the middle of XV century (around 1450 year) a church known as Vlaska church was built in Cetinje.
About the development and the origin of the town, first notes were made at the end of the XV century, when Ivan Crnojevic, in the place that he chose to be his capital, built a castle in 1482 year. According to some documents, the castle of Ivan Crnojevic, the Master of Cetinje, was ruined before 1650 year, but the reasons and the names of those who have ruined the castle, as well as the response to the question why did they do it, the historians still haven’t made to find. There is an interesting fact, that two years after the building of the castle Crnojevic, in 1484 year, a monastery dedicated to the Holy Mother of God, was built, but its remains were not preserved.
After the disappearance of the State of Crnojevic, Cetinje still managed to keep the status of a political and religious center of Montenegro. With the parting of the dynasty Crnojevic, in Cetinje, more precisely, in the monastery of the Holy Mother of God, religious heads of the church continue to rule and govern the city. At that time the religious heads of the church were the most significant personalities in Montenegro.
Towards the end of the XV century, a great part of Montenegro is being governed by the Turkish conquerors. From 1499 to 1513 as a part of the Turkish administrative charter, larger part of Montenegro was annexed to the so called Skadar sanjak, but the areas of Montenegro like the Hills and the North West part of the state had the nominal freedom, while the under Lovcen Montenegro (whose center was Cetinje) managed to retain permanent freedom. A very important function in the political sense of those years had a legislative body called “Opstecrnogorski zbor” (General Montenegrin gathering). The first gathering, of the legislative body, defined as a military-democratic parliament of the Montenegrin people from the free under Lovcen part of Montenegro, after the crash of the state of Crnojevic and was actually reshaped in a certain state organization. The first decision of the gathering was to offer the alliance to Venice in the war it fought with the Turks (1499. – 1503.).
In 1579. Opstecrnogorski zbor signs the first bilateral contract between, the under Lovcen Montenegro and the Venice, about the maintaining of the Venetian postal communication with Constantinople (Istanbul).
Almost the entire XVI century Cetinje was marked by the ruling of the Cetinje's archbishopric. Archbishops and clergymen owned feud estates that belonged to free peasants. As the dilemma about the owner’s rights over the parcels was to be solved, in 1577. Cetinje's archbishopric, with the intervening of the Pec's patriarchate receives protection of the Turkish Sultan, but the dispute with the peasants is still solved with a compromise (the peasants become the owners or the leases), while the Archbishopric bends down to the fight for the independence and freedom.
In the period from 1603 until 1613 Cetinje archbishopric turns from the position of a passive observer of the events into an active political relationship. Archbishopric then takes active participation in defensive and liberating fights. In the more significant fights, as the fight with the Turks near Ljeskopolje (1603. and 1613.) was, Montenegrin army was led by the former metropolitan Ruvim II Boljevic. In those years the autocephaly action of the Montenegrin Orthodox Church institutionalized in the face of the Montenegrin archbishopric begins. Ruvim II – a spiritual ruler and political head of the church was at the head of Cetinje archbishopric from 1593 to 1637.
By the decision of the General Montenegrin gathering from Cetinje, Montenegrins (mainly soldiers and individuals from three anti – Turkish bastions – under Lovcen Montenegro, the Hills and across them Herzegovina’s Montenegro) in the period from 1645 to 1669 participate in the battles of Venice against Turkey. From Cetinje and from other parts of the free Montenegro, the help in the arms constantly came.
In the period from 1659. to 1662. the religious head of the church and the first personality in the General Montenegrin gathering and Montenegrin heads of the church gathering in Cetinje, was Visarion II Kolinovic, originally from a place called Ljubotinj, near Cetinje. However, two years before the end of the ruling time of the Visarion II (1633), on the bishop’s seat in the under Lovcen Montenegro, comes Ruvim III Boljevic from Crmnica. In the position of the first man of the Archbishopric, Ruvim III stays until 1685 year. Montenegrins from Cetinje, as well as soldiers from other areas of the free Montenegro, in the period from 1684 – 1699 year, in the alliance with the Venetians, participate in the Morej war, against the Turks.
In the year 1685., at the beginning of May, according to the written records, the Turks manage to breach in Cetinje, when the monastery of Cetinje was set on fire. That was the only time when the Turks, with the use of weapons, after two centuries of persistent battles with the Montenegrins, have tried to establish the control over the only free part of Montenegro at that time. In the period from 1685. until 1692. in Cetinje, one of the most meritorious Montenegrin metropolitans of the XVII century, Visarion III Borilovic, ruled. The famous Turkish army commander, Suleiman – pasha Busatlija, on the 20th of September 1692., begins the second campaign of the conquering of the under Lovcen Montenegro. Turkish forces began their breech to Cetinje, from Crmnica and Podgorica, so by using the untimely and pretty loose alliance between the Venetians and the Montenegrins; the Turks manage, with the help of a Venetian squad to position themselves on Cetinje, and to order the mining of the Cetinje monastery. Then Montenegrin forces, in town and around it, are reorganized in a guerilla warfare way of battle and they make large losses to a significantly powerful Turkish army. The constant attacks from Montenegrins, especially at night, are forcing Suleiman – pasha, to leave Cetinje, and with his leaving disappears the idea of establishing control over under Lovcen Montenegro.
In the year 1694. on the position of the Montenegrin metropolitan of the Orthodox Church, and by that the first persona in the political life of the under Lovcen Montenegro, comes Savatije (Sava) Kaludjerovic, from Ocinici, near Cetinje. At that position bishop Sava stayed until 1697. when he is being substituted by the newly elected metropolitan Danilo Scepcevic, the founder of the bishopric and the dynasty of the family Petrovic Njegos. Bishop Danilo rules with the free part of Montenegro until the year 1735. The credits that go to bishop Danilo are numerous, so thanks to his wisdom and righteousness he managed to achieve the right of inheriting bishop’s title in his family. That status meant political primate in controlling of Cetinje, that is the under Lovcen Montenegro. Because of such a credit, the chroniclers write, that bishop Danilo Petrovic raised himself high, compared to the previous spiritual and secular rulers of free Montenegro.
The period from 1701. to 1704. in Danilo's control is remembered by his sacrifice for the building of the new Cetinje monastery. Instead on Cipur, where until the mining and destroying by the Venetians and the Turks the seat of the metropolitans was, the newly built monastery was situated a little bit further and was dedicated to St. Holy Mother of God (Virgin). That holy object had to be renovated several times, because the Turks have demolished it three times (1712, 1714, and 1785).
The very beginning of the XVIII century, in historical sources, for Cetinje and the free part of the former Montenegro, remained marked as “crucial“, because of the event which is remembered by the “inquiry of the converts to Islam“ (The Montenegrins who because of some personal interest or fear converted to Islam and went on the side of the Turks). This event allegedly took place and had a crucial significance in the battle with the Turks, and the praises of it are sang in the famous work “Mountain Wreath“(Gorski vijenac) of the most famous Montenegrin bishop and literate Petar II Petrovic Njegos. Even though it is considered that “Mountain Wreath” relays on folk tradition, and has great literary value, that event can not be taken as a real proof of the existence of the “inquiry of the converts to Islam“.
Already in 1711., the administrators of the free part of Montenegro, from Cetinje, begin to establish foreign policy connections and collaboration between Montenegro and Russia. Since then, by the decision of Montenegrin representatives Montenegro becomes Russian ally in the battles against Turkey. On 28th July in 1712., Montenegrins came back to Cetinje as winners from the battle with the Turks. A victory which they won was fought after the battle on Carev Laz, where the head commander of the Montenegrin army bishop Danilo was wounded.
In the same 1712. year, but on the 8th of August, the Turks once more storm on Cetinje. Under the leadership of Ahmet – pasha, the Turkish army breeches into the city and manages to set on fire the newly built Cetinje monastery. However, beside the great militancy and the weapon Turkish army stayed only 5 days on Cetinje field, after which, because of the frequent night attacks of the smaller groups of Montenegrins, they were forced to leave Cetinje, suffering, even during the retreat, significant military losses.
In the year 1713., on suggestion of bishop Danilo, in Cetinje the gathering of the General Montenegrin gathering is held, on which the representatives of the 12 most influential Montenegrin heads take part in. On that occasion an Earth (over tribal and general tribal) court for under Lovcen Montenegro, which apart from the court carried out other state businesses was founded. Today it is considered that by the act of forming the Earth court, for the first time in history of Montenegro, it can be spoken of establishing of a special “Folk Government“. For the President of that legislative body Montenegrin Governor Vukadin Vukotic was elected. In October and November 1714. year Cetinje and the larger part of the under Lovcen Montenegro, found itself in the middle of the campaign of the Bosnian vizier Numan – pasha Cuprilica. Turkish campaign came from three sides, so the under Lovcen Montenegro, at that time suffered the hardest destruction in the two century fight with the Turks. Bosnian army left on Cetinje wasteland, sowing death, taking people for slaves and pillaging and burning households. Still, after a short period of time, Turks leave the under Lovcen area, not even trying to establish control.
In the period from 1714. until 1716 bishop Danilo resides in Russia, as a guest of the Russian emperor Petar Veliki, who, because of the sacrifice and alliance in the war with the Turks, gives Danilo two gramates – that is confirmations about the recognition of the alliance and about the constant financial help to Cetinje monastery, which should have been paid out every third year. In the year 1717. the Venetian Senate confirms to bishop Danilo and his descendants the right of religious jurisdiction over the Orthodox population on the Montenegrin coast.
For the main mediator in the regulation of the Venetian – Montenegrin relations and for the first Montenegrin governor Vukadin Vukotic was named. On the spiritual and political throne of Montenegro, with the seat in Cetinje, came bishop Sava Petrovic in the year 1753. He holds the political and church control, but already in the year 1750. he leaves the political helm to a younger cousin, Bishop Vasilije Petrovic. Bishop Sava rules until the year 1781. Until the death of Bishop Vasilije Petrovic – in 1766. year, the foreign policy of Montenegro developed in a very dynamic way, and at that time the political reputation of the state was raised significantly. The same statesman in the year 1752. manages, because of the loyalty and alliance with Russia, to get affinity of that great empire, which results with the patronage of Russia over Montenegro, and since that event Montenegro is found under the direct protection of Russia.
A very important event for former Montenegro, but mostly for the capital Cetinje, happened in the beginning of December in 1756. year, when the Montenegrins won a victory over the numerous Turkish army of the Bosnian vizier Camil Ahmet – pasha, in the village Predis, in a place called Bjelice close to Cetinje.
After his return from his second voyage through Russia, bishop Vasilije, brings to Montenegro a Russian colonel, who on his return to his homeland, makes a very unfair report about the state and relations in Montenegro, which caused the cooling of the relationship between the official Cetinje, meaning Montenegro, and Russia. Even though once again in the year 1756. Bishop Vasilije resided in Russia, his intention was to deny the lies from the report of the Russian colonel, but death stopped him, so he was buried, with great honors and on the expense of the Russian Empire in the Blagovjetsanska Church in Petrograd, where his remains still are.
For the new ruler of Montenegro, in Cetinje, on the General Montenegrin gathering in October 1767. Scepan Mali, in history better known as “false emperor“ was elected. He was elected for the political leader of Montenegrins, because he allegedly was the Russian emperor Petar III. Still, later it was found out that the real Russian emperor was killed in the time of the arrival of Scepan Mali on the throne of Montenegro, and in that way his false identity was discovered.
During the period of ruling of Scepan Mali, the title of the governor was established in Montenegro. For the first man with that title on the General Montenegrin gathering held in Cetinje in 1770. year, Jovan Radonjic was proclaimed, whose descendants later inherited the right to vote for that function. In September 1773. year Scepan Mali is being killed while sleeping by a Greek man, while in the year 1781. on the metropolitan throne of Cetinje a pretty incapable and old bishop Arsenije Plamenac was placed. He ruled only until the year 1784. when Cetinje and the former Montenegro began to be governed by the most famous person in the Montenegrin history by the metropolitan Petar I Petrovic Njegos. His ruling the historians have described as a very wise and successful one. Metropolitan Petar I was a respected spiritual bard, a gifted army commander, a recognized diplomat, and a great reformer. During the period of his reign Montenegrin state for the first time got written laws, and metropolitan Petar I Petrovic is also famous by a very important decision about the unison of the hill tribes with the under Lovcen Montenegro, to which Cetinje belonged. The same ruler as the most respected literate of that time significantly influenced the development of literature in former Montenegro.
Even though the invasion of the Turks on Cetinje and under Lovcen Montenegro, was very hard and during the period of reign of Bishop Petar I Petrovic, only the Skadar deputy, in history better known as Mahmut – pasha Busatlija, in June 1785. year, during the Petar`s residing in Russia, managed to significantly damage and burn Cetinje and the surrounding areas. Turkish army has also set on fire Cetinje monastery, and after several days of staying in Cetinje, left the town, directing itself towards the Coast, where they have pillaged Pastrovici.
The name of Mahmut – pasha Busatlija, is connected with the following events that took place around Cetinje and wider area of under Lovcen Montenegro. After a great defeat of the Turkish army, by the Montenegrins, in the place called Martinici (Bjelopavlici) in July 1796. year, Mahmut – pasha, in the September of the same year wishing to definitely conquer the free territory of the former Montenegro, once again attacks and a, for Montenegro crucial, battle on Krusi (Ljesanska nahija) happens, in which Turks were finally defeated and Mahmut – pasha, murdered.
Immediately after the battle, with a victory won, Montenegrins come back with a triumph to Cetinje, where a solemn welcome was organized. With the battle on Krusi, Montenegro creates a historical turn point in further Turkish – Montenegrin relations, and the free territory of Montenegro, was widened by the annex of the places called Piper and Bjelopavlici.
On the folk parliament in Cetinje, in October 1798. year, the Legal Code of Petar I was passed, while the amendment of that document came in 1803. year in the monastery Stanjevici near Budva.
In Cetinje in the year 1805. Russia established the first diplomatic representative office, so that period is considered for a very significant for the promotion of Cetinje in a diplomatic residence.
Metropolitan Petar I Petrovic, dies in Cetinje in 1830. He is buried in the church of the new Cetinje monastery, and in the history of Montenegro, that statesman remained remembered by his great contributions in which he supported the implementation of Montenegro in Europe, opening of schools, gaining the international subjectivity of the state. He also remained remembered by his merits in state and religious work, and because of that he is remembered by the name of “St. Bishop“. On the throne of the Montenegrin church and state in the year 1830. comes Petar II Petrovic Njegos (1813. – 1851.), to the contemporary history known as a great philosopher and a poet. Beside his great contribution to literature, and promotion of Montenegro in various countries of the world, during the period of the reign of bishop Petar II Petrovic Njegos or bishop Rade Tomov, in Cetinje in the year 1831. a Controlling senate of Montenegro and Hills was elected. That legislative body, better known as Big court (Velji sud), is made of 12 most respected heads of the former Montenegro, and it has the function of legislative, executive and court power. In the same year Montenegrin troupes have directed themselves from Cetinje in an, unfortunately, unsuccessful attack on Podgorica, which was held by the Turkish conquerors.
In the year 1833., after Petar II became a bishop, in Cetinje the Law of ancestry was passes. It contained 20 articles, and in the same year the Montenegrins again perform an unsuccessful attack on Podgorica.
During the period of reign of bishop Petar II Petrovic Njegos, Montenegro had a very noticeable role in the diplomatic circles of former Europe.
The period from 1837. to 1850., is remembered for an extremely outstanding literary work of Petar II Petrovic Njegos. That great ruler was a frequent guest of Austria and Russia. In 1844. he visited Vienna, in 1845.year he published his work “Microcosm Rays“(Luca mikrokozma), and in 1847, his most famous work “Mountain Wreath“(Gorski Vijenac). In the year 1851 Njegos`s work “False Emperor Scepan Mali“(Lazni car Scepan mali) was published.
For that period of government it is important to mention also the year 1835., better known for the pillage of Zabljak by the Montenegrins, and also the battle on Grahovo in 1836. year.
The period of reign of the great thinker and philosopher PetarII Petrovic Njegos, the history of Cetinje apart from the sudden progress of education, is also known by arrival of the fist pool table in Cetinje.
In the year 1838. with the financial help of Russia, in Cetinje, a first residential building for Bishop Rade Tomov (Njegos) is being built, and even today in its facilities there is the pool table for playing. The famous pool is brought from Vienna in 1839. year. It is placed in the largest room of the billiard parlor. As Njegos was a very good pool player, he would express his skill usually by playing with respectable guests, on the big table, whom almost always he beat.
On the throne of Montenegro, in Cetinje, in October 1851. comes Danilo I Petrovic Njegos. Already the next, 1852. year, the Montenegrin Senate proclaimed the state a Principality, and Danilo officially became a Prince, which was immediately confirmed by Russia. In the year 1853. an agreement about the end of the war between Montenegro and Turkey was concluded, and the same year Prince Danilo visited the Austrian Emperor.
In the year 1855. Prince Danilo made a set of reforms in Montenegro: the register of population, reorganization and formation of the army, the Legal Code made of 95 articles was passed and a battle unit named Garda (Guard) was established. In 1856. year in Cetinje news came from Paris, that the expectations of Prince Danilo, that Montenegro should become and independent state did not come true. That was supposed to be ended formally on, Paris peace congress, which was held that year.
In May 1858., under the leadership of the Governor Mirko Petrovic, brother of Prince Danilo, Montenegrin army comes back to Cetinje, in the festive mood, because Kolasin was destroyed and then occupied, as well as certain summer pastures on the Mountain Sinajevina.
On the August 1st 1860. year, in Kotor, Prince Danilo Petrovic was killed. The executioner of the assassination was Todor Kadic. After the death of Prince Danilo Petrovic, the Montenegrin throne in Cetinje was given to his nephew Nikola Mirko Petrovic (1860. – 1918.). During the reign of King Nikola, Montenegro gained even more importance in all fields of social life, and his wise politics promoted Montenegro as a modern European state, while the capital Cetinje at the end of XIX and the beginning of the XX century, became very important center of many world diplomats, politicians, literates, authors who write about their travels and many others. New schools are being opened, new hospitals; the military advances, the educational work is enriched with the established office of the folk education in the year 1860.
In September 1862 Montenegro makes peace with Turkey, which contributes largely to the stabilization of the life in the state, in Cetinje, as a capital city, as well as in the center of the Kingdom Montenegro. In Cetinje, in the period from 1863. to 1868., it is intensively being worked on making literate citizens, education of children and the adults. A temporary seminary is being opened, the magazine “Orlic“ (Little eagle) is being published, while the work of the former Montenegrin fine arts creators take part in the world exhibition in Moscow. In year 1886. in Cetinje a contract between the King Nikola and the Serbian Prince Mihailo Obrenovic, considering the collaboration between Montenegro and Serbia in their fight for liberation, was signed.
The relations between Montenegro and Turkey were significantly disturbed in 1874, and the motive was the revenge for the murder of Jusuf Mucin Krcic, in Podgorica. Already the next year 1875., in Cetinje came the news of new war broking out between Montenegro and Turkey. The war was declared in Jun 1876., with the battles which occurred on Vuciji dol and Fundina. For Cetinje and the Kingdom Montenegro, the most significant moment took place in the year 1878., when on congress in Berlin, Montenegro receives the recognition from the countries which until then did not recognize Montenegro as an independent state. The territory of the new state was widened to 9.476 km², with the towns: Podgorica, Bar, Kolasin, Spuz, Plav, Gusinje, Savnik, Zabljak and a part of Piva.
More significant reforms in the area of schooling and education began in 1879. when the first Legal code about the general school duty was passed. The basic education in that way becomes obligatory, liberated and free of charge. In 1880. the Cetinje high school begins to work; in 1881. the church reform has been conducted, that is, the Cetinje parish was reorganized, while in 1884 the first Cetinje voluntary society was formed, as well as the Montenegrin theatre. In 1888., Baltazar Bogisic publishes the first Cetinje property Legal code of the Principality of Montenegro. In 1840., in Cetinje the 400 years of the printing office Crnojevic is being celebrated. All the taxes and payments in Montenegro were done with the hello of the new currency – perper, while one year later (1906), a more active engagement of the parties in political life of Montenegro began – the Montenegrin folk parliament began to work, and in the parliamentary life of Montenegro parties began to participate: folk men, clubmen and independents.
The year 1907. and 1908 were especially critical for the former Montenegrin president Nikola I, because in those years the opponents of the King have tried, two times, to kill him. In the year 1910. Montenegro was proclaimed Kingdom, and on Cetinje for that occasion a celebration was held for the golden jubilee, the 50 years of the ruling of King Nikola in Montenegro. In 1912.for Cetinje and Montenegro very hard time begins, because the state goes into the Balkan war. With the victory in Balkan wars (1912. – 1913), Montenegro expands its territory to 14. 443 km², and liberates 10 cities. Also, in the same 1913, Montenegro on the side of Serbia, participates in the war against Bulgaria. Those events for Cetinje and the state as a whole represented the announcement of the Ist World War, in which Montenegro, in 1916. participating on the side of Serbia, started the war against Austro – Hungary. In 1916. there comes to a great turnover in Montenegro, Montenegrin army surrenders, and because of the circumstances in the country, which inviolably affected the ruler, King Nikola Petrovic goes to exile.
Even though Montenegro managed to liberate itself from Austro – Hungary, immediately after that political event better known as “Podgorica's parliament”, which was held in November of 1918. it will have a decisive impact on Cetinje as a former capital of Montenegro, as well as the state as a whole. On Podgorica`s parliament, the territory of the state Montenegro was annexed to the state of Serbia and the dynasty Petrovic – Njegos immediately dethroned. Towards the end of 1918. and the beginning of 1919 year, in Cetinje and on the wider area in majority parts of north Montenegro, an event better know as “white terror” (bijeli terror), occurred, when “in blood” the Montenegrin national revolution was smothered (crushed), which for a goal had the rebellion against the annex of Montenegro to Serbia. Under the motto “For right, honor and freedom of Montenegro” on the 6th of January, the Christmas uprising was started. Its starters were the members of the Montenegrin Green party, but their efforts to restore the reputation and function to the Kingdom Montenegro, failed immediately, because with the Versailles contract in Paris in 1919. the new state on the Balkans – Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians was recognized, and by that the annex of Montenegro to Serbia was also recognized. That year officially the state of Montenegro ceased to exist, and the capital Cetinje to loose its importance.
The period of the reign of King Nikola, will remain in history of Montenegro and Cetinje remembered not only by and extreme political maturity and wisdom of a ruler, but also by a great development of Montenegro. The period of his reign marked a positive and sudden development of Montenegro with the diplomatic circles in the former Europe. At that time Cetinje is being composed architectonically and urbanistically, so the first legations of the foreign countries are being built: Austro – Hungary, Russia, Italy, England, France, Bulgaria and many others. The buildings, in which the legations of the leading European countries were seated, exist even today. In some of then culturally – historical institutions of Montenegro are placed, and some of them are waiting to be renovated or adapted.
In 1921, King Nikola, the ruler of Montenegro until 1919, dies in exile, while in Cetinje the heir of the throne Danilo Petrovic, abdicated in benefit of his nephew Mihailo, who is considered to be the last Montenegrin king, without his kingdom. The influence of Serbia and its politics on the events in Montenegro and Cetinje was constant until the World War II in 1941. year, when on 12th of July, Montenegro under the leadership of the Communist party of Yugoslavia, was proclaimed a sovereign state.
Already near the end of 1941. year, Cetinje is being taken by the Italian occupying army, the town lives in fear and under the command of the new occupiers. Organized in smaller saboteur groups people from Cetinje during the World War II were trying in various ways to stand up to the enemy. It was like that until the liberation of the town in 1944., when the troupes of partisans and the rebels from the area of Cetinje brought freedom to the town – a hero, as Cetinje is called today.
In the Republic of Montenegro, after the World War II, Cetinje is no longer the capital city of that Republic, but its functions are taken over by Podgorica. Since then, and until 1989. Cetinje is more a business, historical, and cultural center. However, by the breaking out of the war in the area of the former SFRJ (Socialistic Federative Republic of Yugoslavia) in 1991., those functions too slowly begin to dye. With the ending of the work of big economic enterprises like holding company “Obod”, transport enterprise “Bojana”, shoe factory “Kosuta” etc. Cetinje becomes poorer and poorer and its former reputation and significance disappear.
Even though in the last years something has been done for the revitalization of the vital functions of the town, Cetinje is still considered to be a town of rich history and culture but its social and economic life is still not well developed.