The History of Cetinje - Part VI
In the year 1855. Prince Danilo made a set of reforms in Montenegro: the register of population, reorganization and formation of the army, the Legal Code made of 95 articles was passed and a battle unit named Garda (Guard) was established.
In 1856. year in Cetinje news came from Paris, that the expectations of Prince Danilo, that Montenegro should become and independent state did not come true. That was supposed to be ended formally on, Paris peace congress, which was held that year.
In May 1858., under the leadership of the Governor Mirko Petrovic, brother of Prince Danilo, Montenegrin army comes back to Cetinje, in the festive mood, because Kolasin was destroyed and then occupied, as well as certain summer pastures on the Mountain Sinajevina.
On the August 1st 1860. year, in Kotor, Prince Danilo Petrovic was killed. The executioner of the assassination was Todor Kadic. After the death of Prince Danilo Petrovic, the Montenegrin throne in Cetinje was given to his nephew Nikola Mirko Petrovic (1860. – 1918.). During the reign of King Nikola, Montenegro gained even more importance in all fields of social life, and his wise politics promoted Montenegro as a modern European state, while the capital Cetinje at the end of XIX and the beginning of the XX century, became very important center of many world diplomats, politicians, literates, authors who write about their travels and many others. New schools are being opened, new hospitals; the military advances, the educational work is enriched with the established office of the folk education in the year 1860.
In September 1862 Montenegro makes peace with Turkey, which contributes largely to the stabilization of the life in the state, in Cetinje, as a capital city, as well as in the center of the Kingdom Montenegro. In Cetinje, in the period from 1863. to 1868., it is intensively being worked on making literate citizens, education of children and the adults. A temporary seminary is being opened, the magazine “Orlic“ (Little eagle) is being published, while the work of the former Montenegrin fine arts creators take part in the world exhibition in Moscow. In year 1886. in Cetinje a contract between the King Nikola and the Serbian Prince Mihailo Obrenovic, considering the collaboration between Montenegro and Serbia in their fight for liberation, was signed.
The relations between Montenegro and Turkey were significantly disturbed in 1874, and the motive was the revenge for the murder of Jusuf Mucin Krcic, in Podgorica. Already the next year 1875., in Cetinje came the news of new war broking out between Montenegro and Turkey. The war was declared in Jun 1876., with the battles which occurred on Vuciji dol and Fundina.
For Cetinje and the Kingdom Montenegro, the most significant moment took place in the year 1878., when on congress in Berlin, Montenegro receives the recognition from the countries which until then did not recognize Montenegro as an independent state. The territory of the new state was widened to 9.476 km², with the towns: Podgorica, Bar, Kolasin, Spuz, Plav, Gusinje, Savnik, Zabljak and a part of Piva.
More significant reforms in the area of schooling and education began in 1879. when the first Legal code about the general school duty was passed. The basic education in that way becomes obligatory, liberated and free of charge. In 1880. the Cetinje high school begins to work; in 1881. the church reform has been conducted, that is, the Cetinje parish was reorganized, while in 1884 the first Cetinje voluntary society was formed, as well as the Montenegrin theatre.
In 1888., Baltazar Bogisic publishes the first Cetinje property Legal code of the Principality of Montenegro. In 1840., in Cetinje the 400 years of the printing office Crnojevic is being celebrated. All the taxes and payments in Montenegro were done with the hello of the new currency – perper, while one year later (1906), a more active engagement of the parties in political life of Montenegro began – the Montenegrin folk parliament began to work, and in the parliamentary life of Montenegro parties began to participate: folk men, clubmen and independents.