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Bar Nature

Bar is situated in the South of Montenegro. The area over which municipality of Bar is spread is situated between the Adriatic Sea and Skadar. The territory of Bar is 506 km 2 , and along with the part that encompasses water surface of the Skadar Lake (on the Bar side), the area sums up to 633km 2 . The central part of the Bar area represents the mountain massif of Rumija (the highest peak 1595 m) along with Sozina (971 m), Sutorman (1185) and Lisinja (1352 m), that has a dinaric direction of expanding and makes a natural border between the Adriatic Sea and the Skadar Lake.

As Bar is only 180 m by airline from the Strait of Otranto, it is connected by waterway to Middle and East Mediterranean, and ports of all continents, so such a link enables shorter and direct connections with all the shores of the Mediterranean Sea.

The climate of Bar is very characteristic. Beside the fact that it is one of the sunniest places of the South Europe, with approximately 270 sun hours per year, the climate has long and warm summers, and mild winters.

The average yearly temperature is 16 ○C. In July the approximate air temperature is 23 ○C, and in January 10 ○C.

The summers in Bar are long and dry, and because of the heat influences of the Adriatic Sea the winters are mild and rainy. On the average, during the winter in Bar there are 38 rainy days in a year.

Average high winter temperature, (around 10 ○C) shows that in Bar there are very few real winter days. Also, there are very few days in Bar when the temperature goes below 0 ○C, so it is thought that actually in Bar there is no real winter. Real rarities are the winter days accompanied with snow and frost. All the above-mentioned characteristics recommend Bar to tourists as an ideal place not just for the summer but also for a winter sojourn and vacation.

Considering the fact that the municipality of Bar, concerning the relief, is divided in three regions: Adriatic, lake and mountain region, in some parts of the Bar municipality we can differ three types of climate. In the Adriatic zone the climate is mild – Mediterranean, especially distinct in Bar field. The characteristics of the mountain-Mediterranean climate are especially customary in the mountain wreaths, especially above mountains Sutorman, Rumija and Lisanj. In the zone of the Skadar Lake we have the Adriatic climate, with strong influences of the continental climate, and significant oscillations in temperature.

Municipality of Bar encompasses some parts around places of Virpazar, Crmnica, and Skadar Lake, so the climate in those areas is significantly different from the climate in Bar. When the Southwestern circulation (stream) is turns out, then the area of Bar is exposed to wet air.

Characteristic Adriatic winds blow in Bar and the surroundings: the cold wind –the tempest, the wet wind – the south wind or the sirocco, as well as the west wind, the north wind or the mistral, the storm wind, the day wind and the night wind.

The most frequent and the wind of the greatest intensity is the tempest. It blows mostly in the winter form high mountains towards the sea and it brings coldness. The tempest, which blows on the sea, can be of strength of a storm, so it usually makes low and short waves up to 2.5 meters.

South wind or sirocco blows in the South or Southeast part of the Adriatic region, from the sea towards the land. Depending whether it blows with medium or maximal speed, the strength of the south wind can be between 3 and 8 Beau forts. During the blowing of the south wind the sea is ruffled, and the waves reach the height up to six meters.

When the weather is clear and warm, and that is usually at the end of spring and during the summer, in Bar blows the so-called cool wind the breeze or mistral. That wind most often blows during the day. Mistral is considered to be the most important summer wind, because it pleasantly cools the heat during the hot summer days. The mistral blows from the sea and mostly it just stirs the sea surface.

The west wind is wet and pretty frequent wind which blows in Bar most frequently in the spring. In Bar and the surroundings, often also blows levant, a warm southeast wind, which makes the air wet, while the wind named lebic, blows from south-west. The storm wind blows over night, from the land towards the sea, from north-east and east, while during the unequal warming and cooling of Bar bay, the summer day and night wind shift.

In Bar and the surroundings often blows a very strong stormy wind better known as nevera. It blows from the sea, and it is characterized by short duration and frequent change of blowing direction.

Flora and fauna of Bar are also very characteristic. Beside the diversity and thickness of the floral cover, the geographical location and the structure of the soil enabled that in Bar different floral cultures and especially the subtropic ones can be grown and developed. Beside meadows, fields, vineyards and orchards, the green zone of Bar abounds in deciduous and coniferous forests, pastures, under bush and marquise. Especially in the mountains and forests around Bar grow: beech, fir, juniper bush, black and white pine, oak, hornbeam, cerris, chestnut, European ash… Especially is interesting the floral kind of a plant of yellow color, which grows on a thin dark green stick, better known as zuka. Most frequently it grows like a wild bush and from it people from old Bar used to make nets and ropes. Also, out of the fibers of zuka old Bar women wove suits and white folk costumes. Save the diversity and thickness of the floral cover, the geographical location and the structure of the soil enabled that in Bar different floral cultures and especially the sub tropic ones can be grown and developed.

The most diffused plant is olive, the native fruit kind. There is a very little number of the households in Bar that in their own yards don’t have at least one olive tree.

Beside the fact that from the olive tree a famous oil better known as “The Bar gold“, which is one of the several export articles of the Montenegrin trade mark “Made in Montenegro“, is being extracted, olive oil is a very important ingredient of many traditional meals, especially those that are made of fish. In Bar and the surroundings several kinds of olive trees grow, and the most frequent are black and yellow olive tree, more famous as “crnjaka“ and “zutica“. Also, Bar households are engaged in growing grape wine, and rather often certain heads of the households grow citrus fruits, oranges, lemon, kiwi, tangerines (mandarins)   on their plantations but also other sub tropic kinds that are very numerous in the area of Bar like wild and cultivated pomegranate, figs…

A special segment of flora represents the aromatic herbs, and the citizens of certain places around Bar are engage in collecting and refining of the herb wormwood, from which beside the medicinal tea that is mostly used with the illnesses of throat and cold, is also made honey of great quality.

The coastal area of Bar is also rich with exotic herbal kinds like: palm trees, cactuses, eucalyptus, chestnut, as well as decorative plants like: agaves, mimosas, oleanders but also rosemary and laurel, that are used as very important spices, especially in preparing fish, soup and various thick soups.

In Bar and in its surrounding you can find very different animal species. The largest part of animals inhabits the mountains around Bar like: Rumija, Sozina, Sutorman and Lisanj. The special fauna value represents the wild dog or jackal, that most frequently resides in mountains around Bar. From beasts in Bar we have: foxes, wolves, wild boars, rabbits and pine marten.

Particularly interesting by its importance, when it is spoken of animals, is the region of the Skadar Lake, in whose fauna 264 kinds of birds are registered. Today the Skadar Lake is the biggest settlement of pelicans in Europe. There 12 kinds of snipes, 3 kinds of grebes and 160 more of other kind of birds are being hunted. Among the bird inhabitants in the region of the Skadar Lake we have: cormorants, gulls, different kinds of ducks, gooses, and pheasant. Often storks, herons (white, yellow and grey), grebes and other kinds of birds, which are rare in the world, are often found here. On the Skadar Lake fishing is very frequent. In the water of the lake carps and eels are most frequently caught. Illegal hunting lasted for years, and the irregular haunt of the fish contributed, that in lake as well as in Bar aquatorium, that the young fish is pretty destroyed. In the sea fauna, the most frequent kinds are: dentex, sapa (dentex dentex lat.), bleak (diplodus sargus lat.), arbun (pagellus erythrinus lat), goph (seriola dumerili lat), mackerel (sarda sarda lat) and from the smaller fishes there are: BUKVA (boops boops lat.), surmullet (mullus barbutus lat.) and UKLJAT (oblada melanura lat).

Cephalopods are mostly hunted in the winter period especially: squids, European cuttlefish, octopus but also shells and crabs. In sufficient amount in Bar aquatorium there are still mussels, while rarely there are oysters, and finger like shells.

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