Kotor Nature: Part I
Boka Kotorska is situated in the south east part of the Adriatic coast. From the south east side Kotor is surrounded by the limestone massifs of the mountain Lovcen (1749 m), from the north west with the slopes of the mountain Orjen (1895 m), Radostak (1446) and Dobrostica (1570).
Near Kotor there are two peninsulas, on the North West Vitaljinsko peninsula, and on the south east Lusticko peninsula. Those two peninsulas are separated by the straits Ostro, with the point which is the outer penetration in the bay of Boka Kotorska.
Near by there are two other peninsulas, Vrmacko and Devesinjsko peninsula, which are separated by the gorge Verige. That gorge divides further bay of Boka Kotorska into two inner bays, Risan and Kotor bay, and on the two outer bays, Tivat and Topalj bay.
Experts in protection of the human environment, and urban areas agree in the fact that the territory of Boka Kotorska, viewed as a geo – morphological and vegetative – geographical entity, is very rich in nature. When we are talking about those characteristics, it is good to mention an unusual contrast of relief, the remains of the tectonic disturbances, lime surfaces, as well as the deciduous vegetation in the very coastal zone.
Kotor is situated on the narrow plateau under Lovcen, on the east side of the Kotor bay. Its center is made of the Old town, which is surrounded by 4, 5 km long bulwarks which are stretched from the sea along the hill slopes of Sveti Ivan up to the fortress on the top. On the west side, along the shore, in the foothill of the hill Vrmac, we have lodgments Muo, Prcanj, and Stoliv, and in the east Dobrota, Orahovac, Perast, and Risan. Kotor municipality also has one part of Grbalj field, which is found in the south east from the bay. Together with the Upper Grbalj it goes out in the open sea. Near the cove Jaz, Kotor borders with Budva.
The summers in Kotor are warm and dry, and the winters are mild and humid. The average year temperature doesn’t surpass 15, 2 ºC. 213 days in a year are without any wind, and the swimming season lasts for 144 days. The climate affects a lot the development of vegetation in Kotor. Considering the fact that it spreads from Adriatic Sea and the karst background, the area of Boka Kotorska is found under the influences of the Mediterranean and mountain climate. When those two climates meet and mix a special kind of the sub Mediterranean climate is being created. Not only the climate but also the sea in the bay of Boka Kotorska has great importance. The sea in Kotor represents the accumulator of the warmth and the source of water steam, which is one of the most important factors along with the temperature circulation and the amount of rains in the entire area of Boka Kotorska for such a climate. Kotor spreads over the area of 335 km2. With the Mediterranean climate, the average air temperature in January is 7ºC and in July it is about 23 ºC.